Sports drinks serve as a source of carbohydrates and are used to supply energy before training and to maintain water levels in the body during the training process.
Unfortunately, with a fad for a healthy lifestyle, sports nutrition producers grabbed the bull by the horns, and now there are many products on the market that, in one way or another, promise an influx of energy.
The sports drink industry has more special terms (isotonic, hypotonic, hypertonic, etc.) and jargon than in any other area of sports nutrition. Those who only wondered about using functional fluids in their training or competition can wallow in a lot of incomprehensible words. Is there really a difference between the two?
There are three main types of sports drinks: isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic, which are better known as energy, hydration and recovery drinks.
What kinds of drinks are the most suitable?
These drinks are the choice for most middle and long distance runners. Glucose is the most preferred type of energy for the human body, so it is advisable to consume isotonics with a high concentration of glucose (High Five, SiS Go, Boots, Lucozade Sport)
Hypotonic drinks replace fluid loss. Suitable for athletes who need simple fluid replacement without the addition of carbohydrates; for example, gymnasts.
Hypotonic: Often used as a daily serving after training to replenish glycogen stores. At super distances, where high energy costs are required, hypertonics can be used during exercise. If you drink such drinks during exercise, you should add isotonics to replenish the lost water supply.
What is isotonic?
The answer to the question is contained in the name «isotonic.» There is a concept in medicine as «solution tonicity», if you do not enter the scientific jungle, then «tonicity» is a value that shows the difference between the pressure that the solution exerts on the walls of the blood vessels and the pressure of the plasma blood in the same vessels.
«Iso» (from Latin «iso») is the same, which means «isotonic solution» is a solution that exerts the same pressure on blood vessels as blood plasma. The most famous isotonic among people is a 0.9% sodium chloride solution, that is, saline solution. By the way, a 4.5% glucose solution is also a simple isotonic. Everything is simple!
Why should athletes drink sports drinks?
Any training or competition causes perspiration, I cannot respond to archery and chess, but in cyclical sports it is safe: the blood becomes thicker, which increases the load on the heart. If you believe the materials on the Internet, the allocation of sweat% 2 of body weight significantly reduces the effectiveness of training, and a loss of 7% even causes hallucinations. To maintain a normal blood density, you must constantly drink fluids, usually water.
Did everyone taste the sweat? Sweat is salty, which means that with it the body loses a certain amount of mineral substances, because the muscles and nerve fibers conduct the current. Conductive substances are called electrolytes, and with their loss, the muscles (including the heart) contract worse.
A critical drop in the concentration of magnesium in a blood solution, for example, can usually cause seizures. Therefore, with prolonged physical activity, to restore the salt balance in the body, it is better to use solutions containing salts of potassium, magnesium and calcium, rather than ordinary fresh water.
For muscles to contract, the body needs energy. That of pure water, that of mineral caloric content is zero, which means that the body’s digestive system cannot receive energy from the water. To kill two birds with one stone, maintain blood composition, and replenish energy stores, carbohydrates and vitamins are added to mineral water. In order for the solution to remain isotonic in the blood plasma, different manufacturers of sports drinks use different proportions of salts and carbohydrates, someone adds dyes, flavors and excipients, but the essence is always the same: water + electrolytes + glucose.
They are often used as excipients:
Vitamins: added as catalysts and inhibitors of various metabolic processes in the body;
Caffeine to add a tonic effect.
Creatine and glutamine: to improve muscle strength;
L-carnitine to burn more intense fats;
Depending on the sport, the type of training and the individual characteristics of a person, you can choose a more successful version of a sports drink; the main thing is to read